Based on Yusynth Quadrature VC-LFO (which seems to be an adaptation of a state variable filter)
Please copy, modify and let me know about your results
Only 7 phases because I want it to be as small as possible (3HP)
The 8th phase (315°) can still be obtained by inverting the 4th output (135°).
pcbway.com svg render:
mouser project (missing some items like main timing caps, LEDs, power connector and jack sockets)
|C15, C18||470nF||main integrator/timing caps, must be matched to within 1% or better. Lower value = faster oscillations. PCB has a 0805 footprint, but it turns out SMD caps don't work very well here (stability issues, also the resulting oscillation amplitude seems to be low), so these THTs are recommended (or better). Example of installation|
|C3, C4, C5, C6, C11, C14, C17, C19, C22, C23||0805 100nF||power filtration, value not critically important|
|C7, C8, C9, C10, C12, C13, C20||0805 1nF||stabilisation caps, value not critically important, but higher values will introduce constant phase shift (1nF ~ 0.1ms, 10nF ~ 1ms with 100kΩ impedance) and filter out lower frequencies. Will work even if not installed.|
|C1, C2||THT 10µF electrolytic||2mm lead pitch, <5mm diameter, <10mm height. Power filtration: 10µF or more.|
|C24||0805 10µF||Higher value=longer increased frequency at startup|
|C21||leave empty||do not install|
|T8||leave empty||do not install|
|T1, T2, T3, T4, T5, T6, T7||SOT23 NPN||led driver, for example BC847|
|T9||SOT23 NPN||eg. BC847|
|BCM857||SOT-457-6 matched PNP pair||for example (the part is radially symmetrical)|
|IC1, IC3||SOIC14 TL074||op amp (beware the orientation!!! +V supply pin is closer to jack sockets)|
|IC2||SOIC8 TL072||op amp (beware the orientation!!! +V supply pin is closer to jack sockets)|
|IC4||SOIC16 LM13700 or NJM13700||OTA (beware the orientation!!! +V supply pin is closer to jack sockets)|
|R44, R45, R48, R50||0805 820Ω||1%|
|R1, R4, R8, R12, R22, R28, R34||0805 1kΩ||Output buffer protection|
|R32, R40||0805 2.2kΩ||5%|
|R53||0805 22kΩ||Limits the temporarily increased startup frequency. With 18kΩ it will be higher, but there might be some waveform distortion|
|R46, R47||0805 47kΩ||1%, higher value will lower the frequency range|
|R6, R15||0805 68kΩ||summing resistors - value not too critical, but the pairs must be matched. The summing gain should be adjusted with TR2 and TR3 respectively|
|R10, R17||0805 68kΩ||for inverting buffers - values not critical, but the pairs must be matched|
|R29, R33||0805 68kΩ||1% matched|
|R49||0805 82kΩ||higher value will restrict the frequency range|
|R25, R30||0805 100kΩ||primary inverting buffers - values not critical, gain should be adjusted with TR1 and TR4|
|R54||0805 100kΩ||frequency CV input impedance|
|R42, R43||0805 100kΩ||OTA linearization|
|R2, R5, R9, R18, R24, R31, R37,||0805 330kΩ||LED driver gate. Too low value will distort the output waveform|
|R56||0805 1MΩ||lower value will shorten the time the frequency is temporarily increased during startup|
|R39||leave empty||do not install|
|R38||leave empty||do not install|
|R3, R7, R13, R19, R26, R35, R41||0805 470Ω-3kΩ||LED current limiting, choose according to desired LED brightness. For example 2.2kΩ with these LEDs is still quite bright|
|TR1, TR2, TR3, TR4||THT 100kΩ||calibration trimpots. Vertical multiturn Y or W config|
|Z1, Z2||SOD80 5.1v zener|
|D1, D2||THT 1n5819||polarity protection schottky, THT vertical installation recommended|
|F1, F2||0805 100mA PPTC polyfuse||for example. Will work with 0805 10Ω resistors, but with weaker protection|
|7 LEDs||select R3, R7, R13, R19, R26, R35, R41 according to the LED brightness|
|8 jacks||mono 3.5mm PJ302M||7 of them with the switch/normalisation pin removed|
|1 potentiometer||right angled Alpha 9mm 100kΩ linear||Thonk or Mouser, the closer to 100kΩ the better the frequency range|
|eurorack power connector||2x5 pin header||Shrouded angled header recommended. These have usually the opposite orientation so the pins have to be pulled out, turned and pushed back in so that the shroud tab/notch is facing the PCB|
Yusynth quadrature LFO core: outputs a +-8.33V cosine and sine (90° phase shift). Additionally a small current is supplied to the OTA linearizing diode bias inputs (regulated by R42 and R43), significantly improving the sine waveshape.
With C15 = C18 = 470nF, R46 = R47 = 47kΩ, and R42 = R43 = 100kΩ the frequency range is 19Hz - 0.0008Hz (20min). The frequencies can be increased by decreasing C15, C18 or increasing R42, R43 (ie. decreasing the OTA linearization current). The frequency range can also slightly vary depending on the power source and how close the potentiometer is to 100kΩ. Component changes might result in slightly different amplitudes (can be corrected by calibration with the four trimpots) or even oscillation stability issues (more experimentation needed). Too high C16 will dampen higher frequency oscillations.
The core circuit by itself takes several cycles to start oscillating and settle on a stable amplitude, at very low frequencies it might take even hours. This sub-circuit temporarily increases the frequency for a couple of seconds (by supplying more current to the OTA amp bias input) so that the amplitude settles much quicker (typically around 7 seconds).
C24 (10µF) and R56 regulate how long the transistor T9 will be opened to increase the oscillation frequency. The duration of increased frequency can be shortened by decreasing the C24 capacitance or decreasing the resistance of R56.
After powerdown the C24 capacitor remains charged for a while, so if the power is turned back on in a short while, this startup sub-circuit will not be as efficient and the frequency needs to be rised manually with the potentiometer to allow the oscillations to settle on the stable amplitude.
By adding the SIN + COS signals another SIN signal phase-shifted by PI/4 (45°) is obtained. This summing circuit is also an inverting buffer, so the result is additionally "phase-shifted" by another 180° The summed output signal is stronger by a factor of sqrt(2), so the trimpot should be used to dial a desired resulting amplitude (around 48kΩ when two 68kΩ summing resistors are used). The closer the input signals are to sine and cosine waveforms, the closer the output summed signal waveform will resemble the shape of the input waveforms. If the input signals are slightly distorted, the output summed waveform will look different from the inputs.